David Cramer's Blog

The Cloud Is Not for You

Update: Did I hurt your feelings with this post? Read Scaling your Clouds so you can rage even more.

Well, maybe not specifically you, but the mass that screams it will solve their problems.

It’s been a fun year so far. There’s been exciting things happening both for me personally, as well as at DISQUS. One of those things has been launching a new side project, getsentry.com. This is about it’s 4th month running publicly, and it’s been doing very well. I wanted to talk a little bit about where it started, and how quickly it’s shifted in the stance of where it’s going.

Around Christmas of 2011, and after a lot of prodding by Craig Kerstiens (of Heroku) I had finally given in to the pressure of creating a hosted version of Sentry to launch as a Heroku addon. I already knew Sentry was awesome, as did many others, and this just meant getting something I put a lot of effort into out in front of so many others. It was very little work to get things up and running on Heroku, and just as easy to setup the addon endpoints. We started a private beta shortly thereafter, and immediately picked up a bunch of the Django/Python crowd.

From there it slowly, but steadily grew in both customers and data. In fact, for the first couple of months we were able to survive on just a few dynos and the first tier of dedicated postgres (which was the $200 package at the time). We’ve also expanded to cover nearly all popular languages, including PHP, Ruby, Java, and even JavaScript.

A bit further in the background of how I structured the Sentry service:

  • Two separate apps (www and app)
  • SSL everywhere (two certs, two addons, $40/month plus SSL cert costs)
  • A minimum of two dynos each ($72/month~)
  • Tier-1 dedicated DB (Ronin, $200/month)

Now, before I continue, let me say that I thoroughly enjoyed using Heroku. It’s a great service, I’m friends with a lot of people there. That said, I want to explain why you shouldn’t use Heroku, or the cloud. Let me also clarify that I’m not talking about the limitations of the idea of the cloud, but more specifically the limitations I’ve seen from providers, and specifically my experience with Heroku.

Right from the get-go we had a system that had pretty good HA and redundancy, especially due to how Heroku’s Postgres solution works. Unfortunately, we quickly saw the limitations of what both the Postgres and the dynos could handle.

Our first attempt to address this was to add worker nodes (ala Celery) to handle concurrency better. This turned into one or two additional dynos dedicated to processing jobs, as well as an additional Redis addon. Unfortunately the Redis addon is completely overpriced, we quickly shifted to pulling up a VM in Linode’s eastcoast datacenter instead. This bought us a little bit of time, but really I’d say we were only given an additional 10% capacity by what should have been a large optimization.

Another week or two went by, and it was suggested that we get off the Ronin database, and upgrade to the Fugu package ( which bumped up the database cost to $400/month). This did quite a bit. In fact, this let us handle most things without too much of a concern. A little while down the road, we had a customer sign up who was actually send realistic amounts of data. More specifically, not even close to the amount of data Disqus’ Sentry server handles, but about 10x more than the rest of our customers combined had been sending.

Then shit started to hit the fan.

In no specific order, we started finding numerous problems with various systems:

  • Redis takes too much memory to reliably queue Sentry jobs.
  • Dynos are either memory or CPU bound, but we have no idea how or why.
  • The Postgres server can’t handle any reasonable level of concurrency.
  • We randomly have to spin up 20 dynos to get anywhere in the queue backlog.

Given all of that, I made the decision that I was going to go back to using real hardware and managing it myself. I’m no stranger to operations work, though it’s never been my day job. I did however want to do this right, and with the advice of my coworker, friend, and roommate, Mike Clarke I decided I’d set these up properly, with Chef.

About three days into it, and I had learned how to use Chef (I don’t write Ruby), brought up two full pluggable configurations for a db node and a web node, written a deployment script in Fabric, migrated to the new hardware and destroyed my Heroku and Linode instances. Three days, that’s all it took to replace the cloud.

Now you might argue that the cloud let’s you scale up easily. YOU ARE WRONG, IT DOES NOT. The cloud gives you the convenience, or more importantly, the illusion of convenience, that you can bring up nodes to add to your network without giving it much thought. You can do that. You don’t ever realistically need to do that.

Almost any company worth a damn can bring online a server within 24 hours, even budget companies. When have you actually needed turnaround time faster than that? If you did, maybe you should read up on capacity planning.

The hosted Sentry now runs on two budget servers, one of which runs Postgres, pgbouncer, and Redis, the other handles Nginx, Celery, memcached, and the Python webserver. The cost for these two machines? About $300/month. When I destroyed Heroku, my bill was looking to be around $600-700 between Heroku and Linode. Given the numbers we run at Disqus, the physical hardware should be able to handle no less than 2000% the capacity I was struggling to handle on the cloud.

I’m not saying you can’t make use of the cloud. For example, Disqus uses Amazon for running large amounts of map/reduce work. You know, elastic computing, the kind of computing that is inconsistent, unplanned, or generally infrequent. I’m also not saying you shouldn’t use Heroku. You should see if it works for you. However, if you ever come up to me and argue that the cloud is going to fix any problem, I’ll make the assumption that you’re one of those annoying kids that runs around screaming MongoDB and Node.js are the answer to all of the worlds problems.